Hardeneing and Tempering of steel strips.

Hardening and Tempering is a thermal process that strengthens steel through a controlled heating and cooling process.
This process will result in improved mechanical properties and give a tougher more durable product. The hardening process involves heating the steel to above the critical temperature for the given grade and then rapidly cooling. Whilst this process achieves the highest mechanical stengths and hardness’s, steel in this condition is extremely brittle and therefore requires further treatment in the form of tempering. This consists of reheating the steel to a lower temperature and holding the steel at the given temperature for a given period of time. As with traditional annealing (used to soften steels) this process is conducted in an inert atmosphere to avoid oxidation.
The exact temperature and processing times vary with given grades of steel and the process is very specialized.

Stainless Steel Strip – Hardened & Tempered.

These are Precision Steel Strips, anti corrossive and with a very fine micro-sturcture. The grains are super fine. We supply these strips in Grade S-Flex3. This steel has very high resistance power with Molybdenum .5%.

With C% .32, these strips can be supplied with a Tensile Strength of 1800/1900n/mm2.

S-Flex3 strips are supplied in Medical Industry, mainly for manufacturing Opthalmic Blades.

For more details, visit us at, www.btstrips.com


1. Spring Steel Strips: Hardened – Tempered & Annealed (EN-42, EN-47, C100S & HC-21);
2. Medium Carbon CRCA Steel Strips (C-30, C-40, C-55 & C-62);
3. CRCA Mild Steel Strip (D, DD, EDD, Fe410,ST42,QSTE500,etc.);

Our range of stock is exhaustive. Thickness range is .025mm to 5mm and width is 4mm to 600mm. For an in-depth knowledge of our product range, we invite you to visit us at: www.btstrips.com.

New budget policy expands billet market in Egypt

Egyptian steel industry will most likely face higher prices for electricity and gas this year. Energy expenditures will shrink 39% year-on-year, according to the 2015/2016 draft budget, which is yet to be approved by the president. The government plans to cut expenditures in order to maintain financial solvency, mainly by slashing energy subsidies that accounted for 70% of all state support and 20% of the budget deficit over the last 5 years, according to Alexandria University.

Nevertheless, another growth in expenses will hardly overcome the previous increase of energy tariffs. Over the past two years, electricity prices in Egypt increased three-fold, gas tariffs – by 75%. That raised the cost of long products produced in scrap-based EAFs by $36/t, and of those produced from DRI/HBI – by $73/t. Hence, the increase in gas prices offset the fall in iron ore observed over the period.

If the increase in energy costs, after the new budget is approved, does not exceed 15% this year, Metal Expert forecasts acceleration in rebar costs in Egypt by no more than $9/t for scrap-based facilities and by $21/t for EAFs using DRI/HBI.

After the increase in energy tariffs, the cost of rebar at re-rollers using imported billets and EAF-mills fed by DRI may become almost equal. Regular bottlenecks and consumption limitation of energy resources in Egypt including natural gas, as it was in the case of Ezz Steel recently, makes billet import a reasonable alternative.

Source: Metal Expert.

High Carbon Strips : Grade C98

These strips are available in fully annealed condition with a maximum hardness of 200 VPN & special temper material with hardness ranging from 230 VPN to 270 VPN.

This is a very special grade of steel & is mainly used for making those components where very high tensile strength & yield stress is required. It can achieve hardness of up to 58 HRC Rockwell after Hardening & Tempering. This grade is commonly used for making different kinds of Industrial knives, because due to high hardness it can give a better knife edge & thus a better cutting capacity.

Chemical adsorption of steel.

Chemical adsorption (or chemisorption) measurement techniques, which also include reactions, are useful for evaluating physical and chemical properties of materials that are critical for process / reaction performance.

Such properties can include the (reduction) temperature at which metals become catalytically active, amount of surface metal or active species available for reaction, strength of specific types of active sites, or ability of materials to perform after reduction/oxidation cycles.

The characterizations can provide information on how the material should be used within a process or why a material has a given behaviour within a process.

Source: http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=12186

Spheroidizing of carbon steel.

Spheroidite forms when carbon steel is heated to approximately 700 °C for over 30 hours. Spheroidite can form at lower temperatures but the time needed drastically increases, as this is a diffusion-controlled process. The result is a structure of rods or spheres of cementite within primary structure (ferrite or pearlite, depending on which side of the eutectoid you are on). The purpose is to soften higher carbon steels and allow more formability. This is the softest and most ductile form of steel. The image to the right shows where spheroidizing usually occurs.

Boron Steel

The addition of boron to steel allows the achievement of higher strength after hardening by heat treatment, but offers a workable material to the fabricator or manufacturer when in the “as-delivered” condition.

Boron is often added to medium carbon steels to achieve an in-service performance comparable to high carbon and more costly low alloy steels (rather than increasing their carbon and manganese content or adding chromium and molybdenum – with the attendant penalty of reduced ductility during fabrication).

The amount of boron which is added to achieve these characteristics is very small – in the range 0.0005-0.005%.

Traditional applications for boron steels are in wear applications such as shovels/spades, caterpillar tracks, plough shares, punches, but also some spring steels, and more recently in automotive car bodies. Here they have been developed into high strength sheet steels for parts of the body shell and chassis – such as door sills, door pillar reinforcement, cross members, safety beams and bumper reinforcements.

Vickers pyramid hardness test.

When the Brinell test is used on very hard materials, low values result owing to the spherical shape of the indenter and flattening of the ball. These are eliminated by using a square based diamond pyramid indenter which does not deform easily and gives geometrically similar impressions under various loads. The diamond pyramid with an angle between opposite faces of 136 degree is pressed under a standard load into the surface of the material, and the diagonal of the indentation produced is measured- The load divided by the contact area of impression gives the Vickers Pyramid Number. VPN = Load in kg / Pyramidal area of impression in sq. mm

Aluminium killed steel & deoxidation of steel.

Definition: Steel deoxidized with aluminum in order to reduce the oxygen content to a minimum so that no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification.

Deoxidized steel is steel that has some or all of the oxygen removed from the melt during the steelmaking process. Liquid steels contain dissolved oxygen after their conversion from molten iron, but the solubility of oxygen in steel decreases with temperature. As steel cools, excess oxygen can cause blowholes or precipitate FeO. Therefore, several strategies have been developed for deoxidation. This may be accomplished by adding metallic deoxidizing agents to the melt either before or after it is tapped, or by vacuum treatment, in which carbon dissolved in the steel is the deoxidizer.