Spehrodization of High Carbon Steel Strips.

Spheroidite forms when carbon steel is heated to approximately 700 °C for over 30 hours. Spheroidite can form at lower temperatures but the time needed drastically increases, as this is a diffusion-controlled process. The result is a structure of rods or spheres of cementite within primary structure (ferrite or pearlite, depending on which side of the eutectoid you are on). The purpose is to soften higher carbon steels and allow more formability. This is the softest and most ductile form of steel. The image to the right shows where spheroidizing usually occurs.

JSW Steel set to acquire Bhushan Power & Steel Ltd.

Tuesday went procedurally a step closer to acquiring an asset in bankruptcy-induced ownership change after the administrator overseeing the sale of Bhushan Power and Steel issued a letter of intent (LoI) in favour of India’s biggest maker of the alloy.

JSW Steel had made a Rs 19,650-crore offer, which included upfront payment of Rs 19,300 crore, with another Rs 350 crore earmarked for operational creditors, according to sources close to the development. After JSW Steel accepts the LoI, the resolution professional will submit JSW Steel’s plan to the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) for its approval.

In this resolution case, JSW Steel came from behind and bettered its initial bid to trump Tata Steel’s Rs 17,000-crore offer. The Sanjay Singal-owned company has Rs 47,000 crore of debt. While JSW had earlier acquired the one million tonne Monnet Ispat for Rs 2,875 crore jointly with Aion Investments, Bhushan Power and Steel is bigger with a 3.5 million tonne capacity. If JSW Steel is successful, this acquisition would also compensate for JSW Steel’s failed bid for Bhushan Steel Ltd. (now renamed Tata Steel BSL), which went to the Tatas for Rs 35,200 crore.

Spheroidizing of carbon steel.

Spheroidite forms when carbon steel is heated to approximately 700 °C for over 30 hours. Spheroidite can form at lower temperatures but the time needed drastically increases, as this is a diffusion-controlled process. The result is a structure of rods or spheres of cementite within primary structure (ferrite or pearlite, depending on which side of the eutectoid you are on). The purpose is to soften higher carbon steels and allow more formability. This is the softest and most ductile form of steel. The image to the right shows where spheroidizing usually occurs.

Influence of martensite composition and content on the properties of dual phase steels

A study has been made of the mechanical properties of dual phase (martensite plus ferrite) structures produced when Fe-Mn-C alloys are quenched from the austenite plus ferrite phase field, so as to give a series of alloys with constant ferrite and martensite compositions but varying percent martensites. It is found that the strength of a dual phase structure is dependent on the ferrite grain size and the volume fraction of martensite, and is independent of the composition and strength of the martensite. In agreement with previous work the ductility of these steels is superior to that for standard HSLA steels at the same tensile strength. As shown in a previous paper the strength and ductility as a function of percent martensite are in agreement with Mileiko’s theory of composites of two ductile phases. This theory and the results indicate that the superior ductility of dual phase steels is largely a consequence of the high strength (fine grained), highly ductile (low interstitial content) ferrite matrix.

Supply of SPRING STEEL STRIPS.

1. Spring Steel Strips: Hardened – Tempered & Annealed (EN-42, EN-47, C100S & HC-21);
2. Medium Carbon CRCA Steel Strips (C-30, C-40, C-55 & C-62);
3. CRCA Mild Steel Strip (D, DD, EDD, Fe410,ST42,QSTE500,etc.);

Our range of stock is exhaustive. Thickness range is .025mm to 5mm and width is 4mm to 600mm. For an in-depth knowledge of our product range, we invite you to visit us at: www.btstrips.com.

New budget policy expands billet market in Egypt

Egyptian steel industry will most likely face higher prices for electricity and gas this year. Energy expenditures will shrink 39% year-on-year, according to the 2015/2016 draft budget, which is yet to be approved by the president. The government plans to cut expenditures in order to maintain financial solvency, mainly by slashing energy subsidies that accounted for 70% of all state support and 20% of the budget deficit over the last 5 years, according to Alexandria University.

Nevertheless, another growth in expenses will hardly overcome the previous increase of energy tariffs. Over the past two years, electricity prices in Egypt increased three-fold, gas tariffs – by 75%. That raised the cost of long products produced in scrap-based EAFs by $36/t, and of those produced from DRI/HBI – by $73/t. Hence, the increase in gas prices offset the fall in iron ore observed over the period.

If the increase in energy costs, after the new budget is approved, does not exceed 15% this year, Metal Expert forecasts acceleration in rebar costs in Egypt by no more than $9/t for scrap-based facilities and by $21/t for EAFs using DRI/HBI.

After the increase in energy tariffs, the cost of rebar at re-rollers using imported billets and EAF-mills fed by DRI may become almost equal. Regular bottlenecks and consumption limitation of energy resources in Egypt including natural gas, as it was in the case of Ezz Steel recently, makes billet import a reasonable alternative.

Source: Metal Expert.

High Carbon Strips : Grade C98

These strips are available in fully annealed condition with a maximum hardness of 200 VPN & special temper material with hardness ranging from 230 VPN to 270 VPN.

This is a very special grade of steel & is mainly used for making those components where very high tensile strength & yield stress is required. It can achieve hardness of up to 58 HRC Rockwell after Hardening & Tempering. This grade is commonly used for making different kinds of Industrial knives, because due to high hardness it can give a better knife edge & thus a better cutting capacity.

Chemical adsorption of steel.

Chemical adsorption (or chemisorption) measurement techniques, which also include reactions, are useful for evaluating physical and chemical properties of materials that are critical for process / reaction performance.

Such properties can include the (reduction) temperature at which metals become catalytically active, amount of surface metal or active species available for reaction, strength of specific types of active sites, or ability of materials to perform after reduction/oxidation cycles.

The characterizations can provide information on how the material should be used within a process or why a material has a given behaviour within a process.

Source: http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=12186

Spheroidizing of carbon steel.

Spheroidite forms when carbon steel is heated to approximately 700 °C for over 30 hours. Spheroidite can form at lower temperatures but the time needed drastically increases, as this is a diffusion-controlled process. The result is a structure of rods or spheres of cementite within primary structure (ferrite or pearlite, depending on which side of the eutectoid you are on). The purpose is to soften higher carbon steels and allow more formability. This is the softest and most ductile form of steel. The image to the right shows where spheroidizing usually occurs.

Boron Steel

The addition of boron to steel allows the achievement of higher strength after hardening by heat treatment, but offers a workable material to the fabricator or manufacturer when in the “as-delivered” condition.

Boron is often added to medium carbon steels to achieve an in-service performance comparable to high carbon and more costly low alloy steels (rather than increasing their carbon and manganese content or adding chromium and molybdenum – with the attendant penalty of reduced ductility during fabrication).

The amount of boron which is added to achieve these characteristics is very small – in the range 0.0005-0.005%.

Traditional applications for boron steels are in wear applications such as shovels/spades, caterpillar tracks, plough shares, punches, but also some spring steels, and more recently in automotive car bodies. Here they have been developed into high strength sheet steels for parts of the body shell and chassis – such as door sills, door pillar reinforcement, cross members, safety beams and bumper reinforcements.